Results Based Management Systems

d

Inclusion and Diversity

In addition to the gender category, it is possible to characterize people in terms of their age, their cultural, ethnic and family background, their religion, their health condition, their sexual orientation, their mobility, and many others.

It is important for us that our activities consider and treat people taking their diversity into account, and that our proposals include as many different imprintings and realities of individuals as possible.

After the World Conference on Women in Beijing, 1995, the United Nations adopted the concept of Gender Mainstreaming. Since then, this strategy has become widely accepted and applied in the area of development cooperation. At this point, it is important that other grounds for discrimination are more strongly included in this area. We would like to contribute to this point with proposals that take such characteristics into account by including, for example, a diverse mix of ages amongst the disadvantaged people whose mobility is limited. In doing so, we are aware that it is not possible for us to deal with all criteria for disadvantage at once, but that we have to limit ourselves to two or three at a time.

 

Gender Mainstreaming

When we want to contribute to the improvement of the life conditions of disadvantaged people, we must deal, on the one hand, with the creation of beneficial structures. On the other hand, it is also important to keep in mind that we are dealing with individuals, with women and men who experience advantages and disadvantages in dissimilar ways. Due to their different realities, men and women oftentimes act and participate differently, and have different degrees of access to the available resources.

For this reason, gender differentiation constitutes an important criterion for analysis and planning in all of our proposals: How are women and men involved in the project? Whom exactly do the planned measures benefit? Are the methods proposed such that they can be adequately applied by both genders? When and where do the measures take place? Can those people who have family responsibilities become actively involved? In this process, we are aware of the fact that the focus on “men” and “women” is an attribution and, as such, it cannot fully capture the complex and different manifestations of “gender” to the fullest.

We are oriented in accordance with the Gender Mainstreaming strategy, so that our measures contribute to overcoming the structural and individual disadvantages of men and women.

 

Planning

a

Outcome and Impact Monitoring

a

Evaluation and Impact Assessments

Impact Plus evaluations follow the DAC/OECD principles and standards, the DeGEval standards for evaluations, and the OECD/DAC evaluation criteria. They foresee an evaluation methodology and tools which correspond to the following principles:

 

-        Accuracy: The evaluators strive to ensure that the evaluation produces and discloses valid and useful information and findings pertaining to the evaluation questions. The evaluation results shall provide an empirical basis for a dialogue between the project partners.

-        Usefulness: The evaluators strive to ensure that the evaluation shall be useful to all the stakeholders, i.e. that it is guided by both the clarified purposes of the evaluation and the information needs of its intended users.

-        Learning: Another important purpose of the evaluation is to promote learning processes which should be useful for the project partners.

-        Facilitation: In this endeavour, the evaluators act as facilitators for exploring the reality and for reflection on the findings. They follow a ‘counselling’ approach, i.e. they strongly focus on processes of reflection, learning, and dialogue.

-        Transparency: The goals and intentions of the evaluation should be made transparent towards other actors, especially towards the evaluated partner organisations.

-        Participation: A prerequisite for success of an evaluation study is the active involvement of primary stakeholders (most of all: beneficiaries and representatives of partner organisations on different levels) by the evaluators, as well as the accessibility of results and recommendations to all involved parties.

-        Triangulation: One useful way of ensuring the validity is the triangulation. The evaluators will consider information and opinions from various perspectives to analyse the findings, mainly by stakeholder triangulation and methodological triangulation.

Impact Assessments: Analysis of Outcomes and Impacts

Impact Plus evaluations usually focus on effects (outcomes and impacts). This implies the search for evidence on two main aspects:

1.            The description or measurement of change observed and

2.            The attribution of the observed change to the interventions.

The combination of these two aspects is envisaged for all the interviews and group discussions. The methodological approaches, however, will be adapted for different respondents.

Change has to be seen against the background of the following general trends:

-        Intensification of a positive trend,

-        Reducing of a negative trend,

-        Reversal of a negative trend.

The general notion of “change” may therefore even include the maintenance of the status quo. The reference then is the question for the counterfactual: “What would the situation be like if there had been no intervention?“

Impact Plus preferably uses “Tiny Tools” to assess outcomes and impacts together with the stakeholders: these are simple, time efficient and participatory tools.